Support and Safety Measures...
Explosion & Fire Hazards |
Health Hazards |
Supervision & Maintenance |
Fire Protection |
Working of OP |
Comply with Federal, State and Local requirements. Primary
storage of organic peroxides should be separated from
manufacturing areas, such as by a specially protected room or
a separate storage facility. Opened containers
should not be returned to primary storage. A separate case or
room should be provided. Further storage safeguards can be
attained through separation by distance or prescribed fire
protection. The quantity of organic peroxides in the
processing area should be limited to the minimum daily
processing requirements. Adequately trained personnel and
planned emergency procedures are essential for a safe
- The local insurance inspection bureau and
fire authorities should be consulted on all plans concerning the location and
construction of organic peroxide storage facilities or buildings. The storage
facilities should be so located that the organic peroxides are in the least
vulnerable position to fire exposure. Vent panels or other mechanisms for
relieving pressure of decomposition should be incorporated into the building
- Reinforced polyester plastics fabricators
handling organic peroxides, depending on the quantity stored, should provide
either a storage room separated by a fire-resistant wall or a detached storage
building. All storage areas should have a sprinkler system. If not adequately
protected by a fast-acting, deluge or automatic sprinkler system, the storage
building or facility should be located an adequate distance from (a) flammable
liquid storage, (b) combustible material in the open and (c) any other
building or highway.
- Large quantity storage in highly populated
areas should be avoided. The quantity of organic peroxide in storage should be
held to the minimum that operating conditions and safety considerations
- The storage building or facility should be
constructed in accordance with the recommendations of the peroxide
manufacturers and insurance authorities.
- Storage buildings should not, as a rule, be
heated, but if heating is required, the recommendations of the manufacturer
should be followed. It may be necessary, however, to cool some buildings or
facilities in hot weather to prevent decomposition of the peroxides.
- Organic peroxides should be stored away from
all sources of heat and ignition such as open flames, electrical devices and
heating equipment. Care should be taken to prevent the exposure of these
materials to prolonged storage in the direct rays of the sun. Truck motors
should be turned off during a loading or unloading operation.
- Containers of organic peroxides should be
stacked in such a way that water from the sprinkler system will reach and wet
them in case of fire. (See Fire Protection.) Provisions should be made to
contain the fire water runoff in a catch basin or equivalent.
- Organic peroxides should be stored in the
same containers used by the manufacturers for shipping the material.
- Various organic peroxides should be separated
from each other in the storage building or facility to prevent accidental
misuse of materials. No other materials should be stored in the organic
peroxide storage building or facility.
- Organic peroxides should not be stored in a
refrigerator that also contains food or water.
Organic peroxides are
relatively unstable compounds which can decompose spontaneously and sometimes
Such decomposition can be caused:
by heat or fire:
organic peroxides are thermally unstable. They are sensitive to heat; above the
SADT (Self Accelerating Decomposition Temperature) the reaction becomes
uncontrolled and violent.
Organic peroxides are generally flammable and burn vigorously.
Decomposition can also be caused by hot material being added to an organic
peroxide, or by the peroxide being put into a hot recipient.
by mechanical effect:
some organic peroxides are able to decompose as result of mechanical shock
(impact and friction).
Thermal sensitivity and shock sensitivity are evaluated by standardized European
organic peroxides can show hazardous reactions in contact with other chemicals
because of contamination. Contamination can be caused by a large number of
Particularly oxidizing and reducing agents, and polymerization accelerators such
as cobalt octoate or dimethyl aniline may cause instantaneous decomposition
which can be violent and accompanied by fire, depending on the product.
In addition to chemicals, peroxides can be contaminated by contact with metals,
such as mild steel, brass or copper, particularly in divided form, and with
rust, ash or even dust.
Organic peroxides show decomposition reactions, the rate of which depends on
temperature and concentration of the product, grade of confinement, type of
diluent and kind of molecular structure.
Therefore, organic peroxide transportation, storage and handling conditions must
always respect the Self Accelerating Decomposition temperature (see figure 1).
Because of these fast
decomposition reactions, handling, storing and transport conditions of
organic peroxides must always be in compliance with the level of the Self
Accelerating Decomposition Temperature (SADT).
Maximum Storage Temperature (see figure 1)
The maximum storage temperature is the temperature below which the product
can be stored safely, but at which it may lose assay if stored for long
Minimum Storage Temperature
A minimum temperature is only listed for those products which will exhibit
lumping or crystallization or phase separation at low temperatures.
Recommended Storage Temperature
The recommended storage temperature is the safest for long term storage without
deterioration of the product's quality.
Even when stored at the recommended temperature in their original containers,
organic peroxides have a limited shelf life. All containers should be dated on
receipt and either used or disposed of within the time recommended.
The "Control Temperature" and "Emergency Temperature" concern transportation
They are derived from the Self Accelerating Decomposition Temperature.
Transportation regulations indicate a control temperature for those products
which have to be transported under controlled temperature.
Where a transportation temperature is defined in the transportation regulations,
the emergency temperature is mentioned in addition. If this emergency
temperature is reached, immediate actions must be taken such as disposing safely
the peroxides (emergency procedures have to be implemented).
The decomposition of a peroxide is exothermic, releasing energy. When this
energy can't be dissipated fast enough, it leads to a rise in the temperature,
which increases the rate of the decomposition reaction: the reaction becomes
The maximum temperature under which the self accelerating decomposition does not
occur is called SADT (Self Accelerating Decomposition Temperature). It is
specific of each peroxide formulation and of the packaging size and shape.
Strict control of the temperature must always be applied to avoid rise up to the
The required data are given in the Safety Data Sheet of each commercial product.